Hepatitis C Caring Ambassadors Program Newsletter

October 2005

 

In The News

 

Hepatitis C Infection Associated With Type 2 Diabetes

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/515409?src=hp20.news

“There appears to be a connection between non-cirrhotic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes, Italian researchers report in the October issue of Diabetes Care.”

Public Health Groups to Hold L.A. Hepatitis C Summit

http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/110205hepc.cfm

“The Alliance and other public health groups are teaming up to hold the third annual Hepatitis C Summit in in Los Angeles on November 17.  The summit will provide a forum for education and discussion among local elected and appointed officials, community-based organizations, medical experts and consumers on the emerging hepatitis C epidemic and the impact of the disease on infected individuals and at-risk populations in Los Angeles County.”

Hepatitis C Leadership Summit, October 29-30, Seeks to Elevate the Current Response to the Hepatitis C Epidemic

http://www.genengnews.com/news/bnitem.aspx?name=1090901XSL_NEWSML_TO_NEWSML_WEB.xml

“The Healthcare Advocacy and Research Collaboration Project (HARCP), a non-profit organization, and The Bruckner Group, are pleased to announce the Hepatitis C Leadership Summit (HCVLS), a private meeting taking place October 29-30 in Boston.”

Hepatitis C complicated by morphine withdrawal

http://www.xagena.it/news/medicinenews_net_news/35e2dcdbea1950a7a290dd0c282da0a0.html

“Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated that Morphine withdrawal complicates hepatitis C by suppressing IFN-alpha-mediated immunity and enhancing virus replication.”

Punk Rock Unites For Hepatitis C Awareness

http://www.emediawire.com/releases/2005/10/emw294857.htm

“In 2004, a national coalition of musicians was formed by singer Kelly Zirbes to help raise awareness about Hepatitis C. After many years of educating others about Hep C, Kelly and her band, Kelly's Lot, decided to invite other bands to join them in their cause. This coalition of musicians distributes postcards…”

Genital tract a 'sanctuary site' for hepatitis C virus in coinfected HIV-positive women

http://www.aidsmap.com/en/news/1D230787-92CE-4CBA-900D-E9610838268A.asp

“Hepatitis C virus (HCV) appears to be compartmentalised in the genital tract of women coinfected with HIV, and may replicate independently, according to a study from the United States and Poland published in the November 1st issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online.”

Hepatitis-C virus stopped from multiplying

http://www.sciencedaily.com/upi/index.php?feed=Science&article=UPI-1-20051017-13334300-bc-japan-hepatitisc.xml

“A Japanese research team says it has found a method that prevents the hepatitis-C virus from multiplying.”

Alliance Emerges as Leader in Hepatitis C Prevention and Treatment Policy

http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/101305hepc.cfm

“Although the words hepatitis or liver do not appear in the organization's name, the Drug Policy Alliance has emerged as one of the leading hepatitis C virus prevention and treatment advocates in the United States. Syringe sharing is the leading cause of hepatitis C in the U.S. today, and most medical experts agree that access to clean syringes…”

Past Illegal Blood Donation In China Linked To Hepatitis C Virus Infection

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/10/051021021407.htm

“Research in a rural province of central China has documented that illegal blood donation practices led to high hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection rates in blood and plasma donors during the 1980s and early 1990s, and that failure to screen for HCV in transfusion recipients increased their risk of infection as well, according to an article in the November 15 issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases, now available online.” 

MultiCell and Thomas Jefferson University to study potential Hepatitis C treatment

http://www.masshightech.com/displayarticledetail.asp?Art_ID=70041

“MultiCell Technologies Inc. has entered into a research collaboration with Thomas Jefferson University, a medical and health sciences university in Philadelphia, to evaluate the company’s immortalized human liver cells as model systems to identify new drugs to treat hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection.”

Artist Takes on New Role as Hepatitis C Spokesperson

http://www.downtownexpress.com/de_127/artisttakeson.html

“Penny Arcade is accustomed to being noticed. The 55-year-old performance artist has been a poster child for the East Village avant-garde art scene since Andy Warhol roamed the city. In recent years she’s become a vocal proponent for artists living in this increasingly gentrified neighborhood. So when she was diagnosed with hepatitis C two-and-a-half years ago…”

Hepatitis C Found More Frequently in Semen of Men Coinfected with HIV/HCV

http://www.aidsmap.com/en/news/66CC79E7-7D38-4DE3-B27F-05FB368E5690.asp

“Hepatitis C virus is found significantly more frequently in the semen of men who are coinfected with HIV than in the semen of men who are only infected with hepatitis C (HCV), according to research published in the November 4th edition of AIDS.”

Liver transplantation due to Hepatitis C: alpha-SMA, a biomarker, predicts recurrence of disease

http://www.xagena.it/news/medicinenews_net_news/8caa4453ee0a54b9cc35641a1044b3ca.html

“Two studies on hepatitis C (HCV) patients who underwent liver transplants examined a potential biomarker that could be used to predict who might develop hepatic fibrosis, a formation of scar-like tissue that can lead to cirrhosis.” 

Survey indicates lack of public awareness Hepatitis C

http://www.clickpress.com/releases/Detailed/4555005cp.shtml

“The survey, conducted by SYNOVATE research, studied the behavior of a varied group of UAE nationals and citizens. A well balanced mix of 330 Emiratis, Arab and Asian ex-pats coming from Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Al Ain were involved. The conclusions of the survey highlight the lack of awareness on how Hepatitis C is transmitted, the consequences of the disease and possible treatment of it.”
 
Clinical Trials, Cohort Studies, and Pilot Studies

 

Risk factors for perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the natural history of HCV infection acquired in infancy.  Mast EE, Hwang LY, Seto DS, Nolte FS, Nainan OV, Wurtzel H, Alter MJ.  J Infect Dis. 2005 Dec 1;192(11):1880-9. Epub 2005 Oct 28.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16267758&query_hl=2

 

A Significant Sex--but Not Elective Cesarean Section--Effect on Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.  European Paediatric Hepatitis C Virus Network.  J Infect Dis. 2005 Dec 1;192(11):1872-1879. Epub 2005 Oct 28.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16267757&query_hl=2

 

Interferon-induced depression and cognitive impairment in hepatitis C virus patients: a 72 week prospective study. Reichenberg A, Gorman JM, Dieterich DT.  AIDS. 2005 Oct;19 Suppl 3:S174-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16251815&query_hl=2

Cognitive function in hepatitis C patients with advanced fibrosis enrolled in the HALT-C trial.
Fontana RJ, et al.   J Hepatol. 2005 Oct;43(4):614-22.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16237784&query_hl=2

Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C.  Brok J, Gluud L, Gluud C.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;4:CD005527.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16235408&query_hl=2

FAS promoter polymorphisms correlate with activity grade in hepatitis C patients.  McIlroy D, et al.  

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Oct;17(10):1081-8
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16148554&query_hl=3

The spectrum of thyroid dysfunction in an Australian hepatitis C population treated with combination Interferon-alpha2beta and Ribavirin.  Tran HA, Jones TL, Batey RG.  BMC Endocr Disord. 2005 Oct 12;5:8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16219106&query_hl=3

Correlates of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus among people with hemophilia.  Zhang M, et al. Blood. 2005 Oct 4; [Epub ahead of print]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16204310&query_hl=3

The impact of past alcohol use on treatment response rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Chang A, Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Oct 15;22(8):701-6.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16197490&query_hl=3

Chronic hepatitis C in Latinos: natural history, treatment eligibility, acceptance, and outcomes.
Cheung RC, et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct;100(10):2186-93..
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16181367&query_hl=3

Risk factors for hepatitis C on the Texas-Mexico border.  Hand WL, Vasquez Y. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct;100(10):2180-5.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16181366&query_hl=3

Antiviral therapy after non-surgical tumor ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus.  Hung CH, et al.  J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Oct;20(10):1553-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16174073&query_hl=3

Alcohol has no effect on hepatitis C virus replication: a meta-analysis.  Anand BS, Thornby J.  Gut. 2005 Oct;54(10):1468-72.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16162952&query_hl=3

Mutagenic effects of ribavirin and response to interferon/ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Asahina Y, et al. J Hepatol. 2005 Oct;43(4):623-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16098627&query_hl=4

Hepascore: an accurate validated predictor of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C infection.  Adams LA, et al. Clin Chem. 2005 Oct;51(10):1867-73. Epub 2005 Jul 28.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16055434&query_hl=4

Relative impact of fatigue and subclinical cognitive brain dysfunction on health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C infection.  Kramer L, et al. AIDS. 2005 Oct;19 Suppl 3:S85-92.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16251834&query_hl=2

Relationship between iron replacement and hepatic functions in hepatitis C virus-positive chronic haemodialysis patients.  Ozdemir A, et al. Nephrology (Carlton). 2005 Oct;10(5):433-437.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16221090&query_hl=3

Percentage of hepatitis C virus-infected hepatocytes is a better predictor of response than serum viremia levels. Rodriguez-Inigo E, et al. J Mol Diagn. 2005 Oct;7(4):535-43.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16237224&query_hl=2

 

Basic and Applied Science, Pre-Clinical Studies

 

The modeled structure of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase of GBV-C Virus suggests a role for motif E in Flaviviridae RNA polymerases. Ferron F, BMC Bioinformatics. 2005 Oct 14;6(1):255 [Epub ahead of print]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16225688&query_hl=3

Undetectable phospho-STAT1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C who do not respond to interferon-alpha therapy.  Aceti A, et al. Liver Int. 2005 Oct;25(5):987-93.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16162158&query_hl=3

Minimal T-cell-stimulatory sequences and spectrum of HLA restriction of immunodominant CD4+ T-cell epitopes within hepatitis C virus NS3 and NS4 proteins. Gerlach JT, et al. J Virol. 2005 Oct;79(19):12425-33.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16160170&query_hl=3

The role of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)--Fas L and HCV in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Nada O, et al.  J Clin Virol. 2005 Oct;34(2):140-6.Department of Pathology, Ain Shams University, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16157266&query_hl=3

Analysis of the Mononuclear Inflammatory Cell Infiltrate in the Cirrhotic, Dysplastic Nodules and Hepatocellular Carcinomas in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection. Hussein MR, Ahmed RA. Cancer Biol Ther. 2005 Oct 3;4(10) [Epub ahead of print]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16123584&query_hl=4

Deficient Stat3 DNA-binding is associated with high Pias3 expression and a positive anti-apoptotic balance in human end-stage alcoholic and hepatitis C cirrhosis. Starkel P, et al. J J Hepatol. 2005 Oct;43(4):687-95.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16098628&query_hl=4.

 

Intrahepatic CD8+ T-cell failure during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.  Spangenberg HC, et al. Hepatology. 2005 Oct;42(4):828-37.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16175596&query_hl=3

 

Host immune responses in hepatitis C virus clearance. Barrett S, Sweeney M, Crowe J. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Oct;17(10):1089-97.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16148555&query_hl=3

Involvement of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors in viral hepatic diseases.  Saitou Y, et al. Hum Pathol. 2005 Oct;36(10):1066-73.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16226105&query_hl=3

Deficient Stat3 DNA-binding is associated with high Pias3 expression and a positive anti-apoptotic balance in human end-stage alcoholic and hepatitis C cirrhosis. Starkel P, et al. J Hepatol. 2005 Oct;43(4):687-95.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16098628&query_hl=4

Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 5A (NS5A) Is an RNA-binding Protein.  Huang L, et al. J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 28;280(43):36417-28. Epub 2005 Aug 25.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16126720&query_hl=4

Interferon resistance of hepatitis C virus replicon-harbouring cells is caused by functional disruption of type I interferon receptors.  Naka K, et al.  J Gen Virol. 2005 Oct;86(Pt 10):2787-92.Department of Molecular http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16186233&query_hl=3

HIV/HCV Coinfection

 

Relative prevalence of comorbidities and treatment contraindications in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected veterans.  Goulet JL, Fultz SL, McGinnis KA, Justice AC. AIDS. 2005 Oct;19 Suppl 3:S99-S105.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16251836&query_hl=2

 

HIV, hepatitis C and HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection in vulnerable populations.
Backus LI, Boothroyd D, Deyton LR.  AIDS. 2005 Oct;19 Suppl 3:S13-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16251809&query_hl=2

Neuropsychological functioning in a cohort of HIV- and hepatitis C virus-infected women.  Richardson JL, AIDS. 2005 Oct 14;19(15):1659-1667.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16184036&query_hl=3

Failure of Hepatitis C Therapy in HIV-Coinfected Drug Users Is Not Due to a Shift in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype. Soriano V, et al.  J Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 1;192(7):1245-8. Epub 2005 Aug 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16136468&query_hl=4

Shared alterations in NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections. Meier UC, et al.  J Virol. 2005 Oct;79(19):12365-74.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16160163&query_hl=3

Detection of HCV and HIV-1 antibody negative infections in Scottish and Northern Ireland blood donations by nucleic acid amplification testing. Jarvis LM,  et al. Vox Sang. 2005 Oct;89(3):128-34.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16146504&query_hl=3

Liver injury and changes in hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA load associated with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy for treatment-naive HCV-HIV-coinfected patients: lopinavir-ritonavir versus nelfinavir. Sherman KE, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 15;41(8):1186-95. Epub 2005 Sep 13.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16163639&query_hl=3

Management and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected adults: recommendations from the Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and National Hepatitis C Program Office.  Tien PC. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct;100(10):2338-54.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16181388&query_hl=3

The influence of hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus co-infection on the appearance of liver enzyme elevation in people on high activity antiretroviral treatment. Olalla J, et al. Eur J Intern Med. 2005 Oct;16(6):405-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16198898&query_hl=3

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

 

Herbal medicines for liver diseases. Dhiman RK, Chawla YK. Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Oct;50(10):1807-12.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16187178&query_hl=3

Miscellaneous Works

 

Differential display analysis of gene expression in brains from hepatitis C-infected patients. Adair DM, et al. AIDS. 2005 Oct;19 Suppl 3:S145-50.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16251812&query_hl=2

 

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus transmission to health care workers after occupational exposure: a European case-control study. Yazdanpanah Y, et al.  Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15;41(10):1423-30. Epub 2005 Oct 6.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16231252&query_hl=2

Rapid genotyping of hepatitis C virus by primer-specific extension analysis. Antonishyn NA, et al.

J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Oct;43(10):5158-63.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16207978&query_hl=3

Prevalence of selected viral infections among temporarily deferred donors who returned to donate blood: American Red Cross blood donor study. Zou S, et al. Transfusion. 2005 Oct;45(10):1593-600.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16181210&query_hl=3

Hepatitis C identification and management by family physicians.  Clark EC, et al. Fam Med. 2005 Oct;37(9):644-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16193428&query_hl=3

Health indicators among low income women who report a history of sex work: the population based Northern California Young Women's Survey. Cohan DL, et al. Sex Transm Infect. 2005 Oct;81(5):428-33..
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16199746&query_hl=3

Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C infection among users of North America's first medically supervised safer injection facility. Wood E, et al. Public Health. 2005 Oct 6; [Epub ahead of print]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16214189&query_hl=3

High rates of uninsured among HCV-positive individuals.  Ong JP, J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct;39(9):826-30.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16145347&query_hl=3
 
Tracing the evolution of hepatitis C virus in the United States, Japan, and Egypt by using the molecular clock. Mizokami M, Tanaka Y.  Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Oct;3(10 Suppl 2):S82-5.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16234067&query_hl=2

Genotyping of hepatitis C virus by Taqman real-time PCR. Lindh M, Hannoun C. J Clin Virol. 2005 Oct;34(2):108-14.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16157261&query_hl=3

Cost-efficacy analysis of peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Malone DC, Tran TT, Poordad FF. J Manag Care Pharm. 2005 Oct;11(8):687-94.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16194133&query_hl=3